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From the mid-1990s and the burgeoning use of 3D graphics in video games, shoot 'em ups became a niche genre based on design conventions established in the 1980s and increasingly catered to specialist enthusiasts, particularly in Japan.Shoot 'em ups encompass various types, or sub-genres.The game featured combat between two spacecraft, inspired by the contemporary Cold War space race.However, it was not until 1978's seminal Space Invaders, created by Japan's Taito Corporation, that the genre became prolific.Vertical scrollers are best suited for arcade machines with tall screens; screens used with home computers or consoles tend to be wider than they are tall and thus less suited to vertical scrolling."Run and gun" (or "run 'n' gun") describes a shoot 'em up in which the protagonist fights on foot, perhaps with the ability to jump.Run and gun games may use side scrolling, vertical scrolling or isometric viewpoints and may feature multi-directional movement. was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1961, for the amusement of the developers; it was however remade four times as an arcade game in the early to mid-1970s.In a "fixed shooter" such as Space Invaders, the protagonist can only move across one axis and enemies attack from a single direction.
The game also introduced the idea of giving the player a number of "lives".The basic gameplay tends to be straightforward and many games offset this with boss battles and a variety of weapons.Different weapons are often suited to different enemies, but these games seldom keep track of ammunition.The main skills required in shoot 'em ups are fast reactions and memorising enemy attack patterns.Some games feature overwhelming amounts of enemy projectiles and the player has to memorise their patterns in order to survive.